Calcium is the molecular switch shifting the phytosulfokine receptor 1 (PSKR1) from kinase to guanylate cyclase activity
Wheeler, J. I.
Manallack, D. T.
Irving, H. R.
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International Conference on Arabidopsis Research (ICAR)
Conference presentationMany plant responses are mediated by interactions between intracellular calcium and the second messenger cGMP formed by guanylate cyclases (GCs). Previously we identified a novel class of receptor-GCs containing the GC catalytic center embedded within the kinase domain and showed that the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of phytosulfokine receptor AtPSKR1 has both guanylate cyclase and kinase activity in vitro (Kwezi et al. 2011 J Biol Chem 286: 22580-8). We now show that physiological increases in calcium levels enhance GC activity of AtPSKR1 whereas these calcium levels reversibly inhibit kinase activity. In addition PSKR1 kinase activity is reduced in the presence of the GC product cGMP. Recombinant AtPSKR1 can undergo in vitro autophosphorylation and we have confirmed it has 14 phosphorylation sites in its cytoplasmic domain including 8 serine, 3 threonine and 3 tyrosine residues. Three phospho-serine residues at the juxta-membrane position were mutated to either mimic phosphorylation on or off states. Kinase activity was enhanced in the on mutant and suppressed in the off mutant while GC activity was unaffected suggesting calcium acts as a molecular switch of PSKR1- mediated signalling that can be modulated by the phosphorylation state. The challenge now lies in understanding how molecular interactions between the GC and kinase domains are capitalized on in the plant.